Stream Fishing 101 | Live Bait Tactics for Bass and Trout

Stream Fishing with Live Bait for Catching More Bass and Trout

Stream fishing is much different than casting a line into a calm lake for bass and trout. The constantly moving water not only affects your fishing techniques but determines where fish can be caught. Successful anglers on the lake often struggle fishing streams and rivers. This is because it is not easy knowing how to read a river for fishing. By understanding where to find fish, the best tackle setups, and successful stream fishing techniques you will have more hookups with live bait on your next stream fishing trip.

Where to Find Fish in Streams

It’s hard to catch bass or trout, regardless of your fishing tackle, if you don’t know where to find them. River and stream fishing requires you to understand how fish relate to the current and structure within the water. Good fishing spots are going to be around areas of structure such as downed trees or large rock outcrops. However, don’t solely focus on these areas when thinking about where to find fish in streams. The best stream fishing spots are those that provide fish protection from current and predators, as well as provide an abundance of forage.

The 3 Best Trout Fishing Spots in Streams

  • Undercut Banks – To avoid predation, trout seek out undercut banks for security. These areas also provide ample prey for large trout making it a prime location to fish for trout. Fish these undercut banks by casting upstream and allowing the current to push your trout fishing bait under the bank.
  • Riffles – Riffles are usually overlooked by anglers when stream fishing. However, riffles are the go-to place for trout when they are actively feeding on live bait. Fish riffles either from downstream or cross current to avoid spooking trout. Floating a minnow through a riffle downstream to an awaiting trout is also highly successful.
  • Deep Pools – All anglers head to deep pools first and for good reasons. Fast water enters pools, usually from a riffle, slows down and then leaves again at a fast rate. Focus your fishing on these two “ends”, where the water enters and leaves the pool. Look for trout in the upper two-thirds of the water column, which means they are actively feeding on live bait and more easily caught.

The 3 Best Bass Fishing Spots in Streams

  • Islands or Large Rock Outcrops – In streams with a lot of current, fish for bass on the downstream side of islands and rock piles. The calmer water here provides a resting spot for large bass and the food they prey on. In bodies of water with a lot of current this sometimes can be the only place to fish. Cast upstream on the edge where the current meets the calm water to trigger bites.
  • Vegetation – Most streams don’t have extensive weed beds like a lot of lakes. Here, vegetation refers mainly to shoreline vegetation. Overhanging trees and shrubs, especially those that are partly in the water, are bass magnets. Fishing with live bait is most effective around vegetation. Cast a live minnow to the edge and let it drift by positioned bass.
  • River Bends – Bends have it all, including both current changes and structure. These are collection areas for drifting trees and also a collection area for food. Fish for bass on the inside edge, or eddy, from a downstream position.

Stream Fishing Tackle Setups

Most stream fishing techniques to catch bass or trout with live bait don’t require heavy tackle. You are not flipping dense weed mats or pulling five pounders from sunken timber. As such, your fishing tackle should be on the lighter side.

Trout fishing rigs should be 5- to 7-foot light or ultralightweight spin casting rods. Rods with a sensitive tip but firm butt end work best for feeling bites and setting hooks. Match the rod with a small, quality fishing reel designed for 2- to 6-lb test line. Select reels that are durable and have a fast-retrieve to be able to fish a variety of live bait techniques. Finally, fishing line can make or break how successful you are. Use 2-lb test line in small, clear streams and move up to 6-lb test for targeting larger trout in big rivers. A good option is a small diameter braided fishing line with a fluorocarbon leader approximately 6-foot long. The braid will hold up well while the fluorocarbon leader will be near invisible to trout.

River or stream fishing for bass requires a little beefier setup. Step up to a 6- to 7-foot spin casting rod in light to medium action. You can also use a baitcasting rod rig (7-foot, medium weight), which is better for fishing larger minnows rigged on spinners. Again, good quality reels go a long way when casting and reeling all day. Fishing line can vary here based on the live bait fishing techniques you are using. Choose either monofilament line in 8- to 10-lb test or fluorocarbon line in 6-to 10-lb test for most situations. A braid/fluorocarbon fishing line combo similar to your trout fishing rigs is another good all-around setup for fishing live bait for bass.

Stream Fishing Techniques to Catch More Bass and Trout

Now that you know where to find fish in streams and the best tackle to use, let’s focus on successful techniques and baits for stream fishing. Once you have found the areas that hold fish, try one of these three stream fishing techniques with live bait.

  • Jigging – Small 1/32- to 1/16-ounce jig heads tipped with live bait for trout work well in most trout fishing spots. Heavier jigs (1/8- to 1-ounce) can be fished a variety of ways for bass. Tip jigs with a fathead minnow for trout or large shiner for bass and work these through riffles. A football jig head works well paired with a live crayfish for fishing rock outcrops and river bends.
  • Drop Shot – This effective stream fishing technique works equally well with trout and bass. Drop shot rigs consist of a large weight tied below a hook. This technique gets the bait to the bottom and lets the current move the bait around enticing bites. Use live bait like minnows for trout or larger minnows and crayfish for bass. Make sure your live bait is alive for maximum effectiveness.
  • Upstream Casting – Current is your biggest challenge when fishing streams and rivers. Remember that the natural food bass and trout feed on are drifting downstream. Upstream casting utilizes the current to your advantage and creates a natural lure presentation. Upstream casting is effective with minnow spinner rigs. Cast upstream, let the spinner rig drift with the current, and keep the slack tight until it gets just up from you then start to slowly reel. Many times you will get bites on the drift before you even have a chance to reel.

In conclusion, the hardest part of stream fishing for bass and trout with live bait is knowing where to find these fish. Once you know where to find fish, stream fishing techniques like drop shotting live bait or upstream casting minnow spinner rigs can become effective. Take these stream fishing tips for bass and trout with you next time you hit the water.


Live Bait Tactics When Fishing for Catfish

Best Live Bait for Catfish | Tricks of the Trade

Feature: Ed Soboslay (32.4lbs)

Like most outdoor activities, most anglers can typically correlate the time of year to the species of fish they are going to chase.  In the spring, it’s generally crappie that is at the top of the list.  In the fall, its walleye or pike that make their way onto many anglers hit-lists.  However, when the doldrums of summer set in and the weather turns hot and humid that is when many anglers trade in their soft plastics and ultralights for a heavy duty bait caster, some bank poles, and hit the water to start fishing for catfish. With so many anglers heading towards the water, we want to ask…” what is the best live bait for catfish?”

Out of all the fish species in North America, the catfish is one of the most sought after during the summer months.  This is the case for a variety of reasons; first and foremost they are a lot of fun to catch.  Blue and flathead catfish can average in well within the 40-pound range and can test the prowess of even the most experienced angler.  Secondly, fishing for catfish can be both exciting and relaxing as the popular fishing methods such as tight lining does not require a significant amount of effort to complete.  Lastly, fishing for catfish doesn’t require a large volume of gear to do, and there are countless opportunities for anglers to hit the water in search of catfish.

Best Live Bait For Catfish

Doesn’t matter what part of the country you happen to find yourself in, if you find yourself in a bait shop and you make your way to the catfish section you will inevitably find a wide selection of soft dough bait or “stink bait” as they can sometimes be called.  Baits such as these are often promoted as being “the best bait for catfish”.  The primary reason is simply their ability to attract catfish.  A catfish typically finds it prey through their strong sense of smell and taste.  The iconic barbells or “whiskers” that catfish possess help them to taste food items that may be lying along the bottom of a lake, pond or river.  Also, catfish possess an extremely sensitive set of receptors along their body that also help them to taste and smell the water as it the move through it.  So, as you can imagine, something that is incredibly pungent could likely get the attention of a catfish or two, however, dough baits come with their fair share of drawbacks.  Dough baits are often hard to keep on the hook, and can be hard to keep fresh.

Photo Credit: Missouri Secrets Tackle

If you really want to be effective when fishing for catfish, you need to keep in mind exactly what a catfish’s diet consists of.  While it is true that a catfish will scavenge along the bottom, as more of an opportunistic feeder, in reality most catfish species do prefer to eat live or wounded bait.  Flathead catfish almost always forage on live bait, while blue and channel catfish will forage on both live and dead prey.

Regardless if you are fishing for catfish with a rod and reel, or bank poles and trotlines selecting your live bait is relatively consistent.  So, what is the best live bait for catfish?

The quick answer for most applications is Gizzard Shad and Brim. This live bait is easy to come by and work for an assortment of catfish species. Keep in mind, with each species of catfish, channel, blue, or flathead, some baits are definitely more effective.

Gizzard Shad – The most popular choice among hardcore catfish anglers is typically gizzard shad.  Gizzard shad are extremely common across the country and are especially common in many of our countries major river systems.  As a result, they can comprise a high volume of a catfish’s diet.  Shad are generally easy to come by, and an angler can usually find some by just throwing a seine net in the water.  If that isn’t really your style, most tackle stores will have shad for sale.

Brim – If you’re looking to branch out from the norm, utilizing a species such as green sunfish or bluegill can generally get the job done.  It is always important that you check the wildlife regulations in your state before assuming that you can use a species such as bluegill or green sunfish, so do your homework!

Other Live Bait – Other great live bait choices for catfish can include perch, skipjack, goldfish, and black salty’s. Much like any other species, the bigger the bait, the bigger the fish so if you are looking to put a “lunker” in the boat, don’t be afraid to scale up the size of the bait you are using.

Live Bait Catfishing Methods

There is popular misconception that catfish only feed at night.  While they can be more active during the night time hours, the reality is that a catfish will feed at any time during the day.  As a matter of fact, some of the largest catfish can be caught during the middle part of the day.

When it comes to fishing for catfish, especially river fishing, there are three main approaches.  The first is simply to head out with a rod and reel and tight line.  This method is extremely effective, and be just as productive from the bank as it can be from a boat.  River fishing for catfish is part tackle and part experience.  Being able to read a river can make all the difference and ensure that you are putting your live bait in the right location.  If you are electing to tack after catfish with a rod and reel, keying in on the channel breaks off the tips of wing dike can be an excellent place to throw your line.  A sandbar can typically form directly behind the dike, and catfish will stage just downstream and forage on stunned baitfish as they are pushed along by the current.  Consequently, this area can be an excellent location to set your line as well.

Live Bait Presentation for Catfish

Whether you are fishing with a trotline or a rod and reel, the presentation for your live bait is the same. Hook your bait fish through the back just under the dorsal fin.  This will allow the bait to swim naturally and appear injured.  If you are using large bait, you may elect to make a few small incisions in the side to allow for extra scent to permeate from the fish.  Once you have your line tight or the trotline set, all that’s left to do is wait.  Ensuring your bait remains fresh isn’t as critical with catfish as it can be with other species, however, it is a good practice to ensure that your live bait is well airyated and is kept in a cool location, out of the sun. If you are traveling light, or fishing for catfish out of a kayak to get to your “best spot” utilizing tools like the Bait Up live bait container can be of some use!

If you are looking for a new challenge, and something that is fun to do when the weather gets hot, grab some live bait and head to your favorite river and give catfishing a try.  You might just find yourself a new warm weather hobby!

3 Tactics for Catching Summer Crappies with Live Bait

Tips for Summer Crappie Fishing with Live Bait

The summer bite is on! Many anglers have just spent the last two months trout fishing and are looking for a new target now that the streams are warming and trout are becoming scarce. One option is grabbing a few rods, a container full of live bait and heading out to the water to find some crappies. Luckily wherever you may live, you can probably find a lake or pond full of crappies within a 15-minute drive. Crappies are one of the few fish species that are plentiful, can be caught throughout the year and make a great choice in your fish fry.

The crappie spawn is over so no more slab filled shallows, but rather big schools have broken apart to seek out submerged cover and steep drop-offs. Unlike during the spawn when just about any crappie fishing techniques worked, live bait will be your go to heading into summer. Live bait fishing for crappies is one of the most reliable lure presentations to catch crappies in warming lakes during hot days.

Summer crappies are still very much catchable but like other fish species, their patterns have changed since the spring. They are still feeding but have spread out and are no longer found in shallow water. To catch them during the summer months, start by following these three tactics for fishing for crappies.

Fishing with Live Bait for Summer Crappies

As the water temperatures rise, crappies will move deeper in search of creek and river channels. These areas have a little cooler water and typically hold more baitfish for forage than other warmer parts of the lake. To find these spots, use your electronics to locate the channels then look for submerged cover like flooded timber alongside them. Paired together, channels and nearby structure will hold both big crappies and lots of them.

Fishing with minnows for crappie is one of the most common and successful tactics in the summer. The best crappie jig is one tipped with a minnow. Crappies suspended along a channel will be stacked one above the other so you need a fishing bait with the ability to move vertically in the water column. Use a large enough jig head to reach the bottom, typically 1/8- to 1/4-ounce with a short shank. Rig the minnow through the mouth and slowly jig and reel it to the surface.

Follow the Weather to Find the Crappies

Weather plays a big factor in summer crappie activity. Typically, if you know the forecast you will have a good idea where to find schools of crappies. High sky and hot days push crappies close to cover and tight to channel bottoms. However, on days when clouds blanket the sky and the wind picks up, crappies will venture away from structure and disperse more making them easier to catch. These are the best days for crappie fishing with minnows and bobber with youngsters or from the bank because crappies will be less docile and more reactionary to live bait moving nearby.

Hot, sunny days are tough to keep minnows alive but with a good live bait container, you are better able to have a fresh, lively minnow to rig up. Fishing for crappies on these days requires you to take your bait right into the middle of thick structure and fish vertical. If the weather is cloudy and windy, find the same structures you would fish on sunny days but back off of it and use a live minnow hooked in the back on a drop shot rig. Finally, for days when there is an approaching front (check the barometric pressure stats), you will find schools along pronounced drop offs near shore and steep lake points. Cast the same drop shot rig here and work it from shallow water down off of the drop.

Cover is Always Key for Summer Crappies     

Besides the spawn, crappies can always be found around some type of cover. In the summer, they will be looking for any type of submerged cover they can find. Not all cover is equally desired, however. For instance, docks will be used by crappies if no other option is available but they are less preferred than submerged stumps, flooded timber or bridge piers. Crappies will also be found in deeper grass if no good structures are available or they have all been taken by other fish. Knowing the differences in cover will help you prioritize spots to fish, especially during times of high fishing pressure when all the other anglers head to the stumps and you head to the grass. Crappies will even move to grass cover on cloudy, cool days to find baitfish. Running live bait like minnows through the grass on a spinner rig or dropping one in on a jig can produce some large crappies in areas that many others anglers have passed by.

For those choosing artificial lures over live bait fishing for crappies, your arsenal should include a variety of small crankbaits in natural colors for fishing near sunken rocks and bridges. In addition, keep a collection of soft plastics (twister tails, tubes, etc.) in various colors and sizes (1-3 inches) for jigging structures in heavy cover. Vary speeds of retrieve and jigging as deep summer crappies can be slow to bite and changing speeds may be all is needed to trigger a reaction bite.

Bonus Crappie Fishing Technique for the Summer

Some anglers are either going to be live bait fishing or throwing artificial lures on any giving day on the water, but there is a benefit to fishing both. Crappies are highly sensitive to color, which means you can often trigger bites by using flashy colors and changing baits often. Having artificial lures with you gives you more options when various live bait choices like minnows and worms may not be producing. This is the only way how to catch crappies in the summer when schools are dense. They quickly catch on to the jig tipped minnow and throwing something different every few casts will let you stay on one school longer and catch bigger fish.

The easy times are over for crappie fishing, but you can still fill your frying pan trip after trip if you focus in on the above tactics when trying to figure out how to catch crappies in the summer. Live bait, a few artificial lures and good electronics are all needed when fishing for crappies in these next few months to consistently land slab after slab.



Why Fishing with Live Bait Makes Sense

Choices Between Fishing with Live Bait or Lures This Season

Lure choice, one of the biggest and most challenging choices for anglers, is more complex than ever. There are aisles of fishing lures at sporting goods stores and anglers are toting overflowing tackle boxes with them on each fishing excursion. In reality, all these artificial lures are only trying to mimic live bait.

Live bait fishing has many advantages, first and foremost you are fishing with exactly what the fish are feeding on. Whether it is worms, insects or minnows, fish are used to consuming natural bait. Instead of trying to pick through tackle box after tackle box, all you need for fishing with live bait is a few hooks, some weights and a good live bait container.

Natural bait has received a bad rap over the last decade or so. Philosophically, live bait techniques for catching fish are thought of as reserved for younger and beginner anglers. In fact, many of us have landed some of our first fish ever using worms and minnows. Fishing with bait should not be thought of as a separate form of fishing, one left for those younger or less skilled, but rather it should be thought of as just a different approach to fishing, with its own benefits and challenges.

No One is Ignoring Artificial Lures

The choice to use live bait when an angler is heading out to the water is often an afterthought. Clearly, there is a push in fishing society to move towards artificial lures and for several good reasons.

fishing with live bait makes sense


First, technologies in fishing lure manufacturing and design have made them highly realistic in replicating just about any type of food fish are feeding on. From minnows to frogs, the variety of lures available provides seemingly unlimited options in your tackle box, which is a big advantage when finicky fish are not biting. An angler can simply change lures until one finds which lure is enticing bites. Second, unlike fishing with live bait, lures can be used repeatedly to catch fish. Bait fishing is almost always a one and done. Catching a fish on a minnow means to catch another fish you usually need to dig into the live bait storage container for another. Finally, many lures have enhanced features added to them such as attractant, rattles and action. All of which can aid in getting fish to bite when natural bait fails to catch a fish.

Live Bait Fishing is Rooted Among Us as Anglers

There is no coincidence most of us have started our fishing careers casting worms and fishing with minnows. Fishing with bait is a technique with its own benefits. For example, learning to fish with live bait teaches us what and how fish actually eat. An important concept that only improves how we evolve as anglers in terms of lure choice. Also, fishing with bait is somewhat rewarding. Being able to gather bait from the ground or the stream rather than buying it and ultimately catching a fish brings a sense of accomplishment more so than tying on a purchased lure.

Reasons to Fish with Live Bait

Fishing with live bait is extremely effective because you are presenting a fish with an option they are already used to eating. It is natural, from the smell to the texture, to what they actually eat day in and day out. Here are three reasons to fish with bait:

  • Bait is cheap or free. Natural bait, like the name suggests, can be obtained by yourself for free and doing so can be rewarding. If you have to buy bait, either at a bait store near you or buying live bait online, it can still be significantly less expensive than the $5-$10 dollar artificial lures on the store shelves.
  • You will catch something. Almost no fish will turn down live bait. In just about any waterway or for any species, natural bait will increase your chances of catching something.
  • Fewer lure choices. Fishing with lures can have you spending all day tying on lure after lure trying to figure out what the fish are biting on. With bait, you know fish like trout or panfish feed on other small fish so it is only a matter of time until you hook into a few when fishing with minnows.


When Fishing with Live Bait Excels

Live bait techniques are no different than other fishing techniques, there are no guarantees to catching fish. There are, however, times when live bait fishing can excel over artificial fishing lures.

  • Fishing at night. Species like trout and walleyes will consistently feed throughout the night and can be caught more frequently on natural bait after daylight hours.
  • Discolored Muddy and murky water forces fish to rely on their senses other than sight to find food. The natural scents and movements you put in the water when bait fishing will bring more bites in stained water.
  • Waters that are overfished. In areas that see high fishing pressure, another artificial lure is just noise to a fish. Fish may have been fooled before by spinnerbaits or plastic worms but overfished waters quickly go tight-lipped to many lures. The best fishing bait in these waters is live bait.

Why Not Fish Natural Bait All the Time?

Live bait fishing excels in a variety of conditions and for many reasons, so why not fish with it all the time? Because there are a few disadvantages to bait fishing. The first is supply. Fewer bait shops are around, with most of them giving way to large retailers that often do not carry bait like minnows. It can be hard to just buy bait. Second, fishing bait that is alive requires care. Worms need to be kept cold and minnows need to be in good live bait containers that keep them alive but allow you to access them. Not every angler wants to put out this effort each fishing trip. Lastly, certain areas do not allow fishing with live bait. Tournament fishing is usually limited to lures and also certain waterways are artificial lures only for various reasons.


It is not an either-or question when it comes to live bait or lures but rather which fishing technique makes sense for your situation. Lures will be advantageous in certain conditions but live bait will win out in others. The main point is live bait fishing should not be left to the kids, but instead kept as a fishing technique to catch more fish.

fishing with live bait makes sense

The Essentials of Keeping Live Bait Alive

Fishing With Live Bait | Tips on Keeping Live Bait Alive

Spring fishing season is officially here, and the dog days of summer are not far behind.  Many anglers are stowing away their parkas and ice shacks in exchange for lightweight windbreakers and sunglasses as they begin spending countless hours on the water in search of fish. It doesn’t matter if you consider yourself a professional angler or just a weekend warrior, you likely understand how important factors like variety and presentation are when it comes to catching fish day in and day out.  This is why anglers, regardless of fishing saltwater or freshwater species have countless fishing lures and rigs set up and ready.  What is enticing to a fish right now may not be enticing tomorrow, neither ensuring that you have plenty of tackle and fishing lures at the ready is often what is necessary to ensure that you see some action during the course of the day.

As far as fishing lures go, most anglers likely cut their teeth by fishing with live bait.  Whether it was a night crawler, shad, or perhaps a crawdad or shrimp, fishing with live bait is an excellent way to introduce someone to the sport of fishing and not only that, fishing with live bait is a dynamite method for putting more fish in the live well!

The Live Bait Fishing Legacy

There are several reasons why fishing with live bait will always be an effective tactic regardless if you are a beginner or an expert.  For starters, it is easy!  Lure presentation doesn’t get any more effective than when you let the lure do the work, and that is exactly what you get when you fish with live bait.

Second, it is really hard to beat the real thing.  No lure can exactly mimic the smell, movement, color, and texture of the real thing. Sometimes it doesn’t matter how many fishing lures you have in your tackle box, fishing can still be tough.  Often, all it takes is to make a switch to fishing with live bait and you can turn the slow trip into an action packed memory.

Finally, when it comes to fishing with live bait, when the timing is right the action can be second to none.  Simply put, if the fish are actively feeding on baitfish, crawfish or insects and you happen to have those at your disposal, you can’t help but catch fish!

keeping minnows alive

Keeping Live Bait Alive

While there is an amazing upside to fishing with live bait, there is a catch.  Simply put, when it comes to fishing with live bait, the fresher the bait the better the results.  No matter what type of live bait you are fishing with, there is a typically a little maintenance involved to ensure that your bait stays fresh and active for the long haul.  If you take care of your live bait, your live bait will certainly take care of you, and allow you to spend more time fishing and less time in the tackle shop. There are several factors that combine to determine live bait life.

Bait Up | How Long Does Bait Up Containers Keep Minnows Alive?


You would be hard pressed to find a variety of live bait where the temperature wasn’t a factor.  Understanding the needs and requirements of the bait you are using is a good first step, so do yourself a favor and do a little research.  You just might be surprised by what you learn!  All too often, if the temperature becomes a factor, it is almost always a result of your bait overheating.

keeping live bait alive

Simple tips like ensuring your bait is out of direct sunlight or monitoring the water temperature in the live bait container are all simple tips that can ensure that your live bait doesn’t overheat.  There typically exists a “sweet spot” where live bait will remain extremely active while waiting to be used, which maximizes the presentation.  You want to try you best to maintain that temperature and ensure your bait is working for you, to the best of its ability.


How would you act if you struggling for air?  Chances are you would be very stressed and sluggish, which is exactly the way your live bait will be acting if they find themselves in this predicament.  Ensuring that your bait has the proper aeration is not only critical in keeping your live bait fresh, it also ensures that your bait will actually remain alive! Also consider the amount of bait in the container. Stress is a big reason that bait will die before being used, so ensuring that they are relaxed and happy is important. The video above shows the general time frame you are looking at when using live bait such as minnows. With considering the bait, temperature, and number in the live bait container, be sure to stop for a quick change of water between casts.

Quality of Life

Regardless of your live bait choice, using live bait comes with a cost.  While the cost may be your time collecting the bait, or your hard earned dollars, the reality is that in order to really reap the benefits you need to maximize the lifespan of your bait.  In order to accomplish this, you need to make sure that you are addressing the previous two factors while at the same time simply taking the time to keep an eye on the overall health of your bait.  Be sure to change the water, often. Keeping the bait alive will keep your fishing alive!

keeping live bait aliveLive Bait Container Considerations

Instead of lugging an aerated bucket or container around, check out what we at Bait Up have to offer. The simple innovative design has taken live bait fishing to a whole new level, and has not only made it easier for the angler to monitor and maintain the quality of their live bait, but has made it easier to access the live bait as well.

Bait Up live bait containers are portable, and can easily be carried with you anywhere you go, making it easier to switch or replace your bait!  Say goodbye to the ole’ Styrofoam bucket, “cage”, or heavy bucket, as well as the days of dead bait, and improve your fishing experience!